Crocin & Saffron News

Here you can find the most recent news about our product developments and crocin/saffron related research publications. 

Our Product News

Nov. 2020: A US Patent was issued for our product.

Jan. 2017: Published “A Perspective on Crocus sativus L. (Saffron) Constituent Crocin: A Potent Water-Soluble Antioxidant and Potential Therapy for Alzheimer’s Disease” J. Agric. Food Chem. 2017, 65, 1005−1020.

Mar. 2016: FDA issued Certificate of Free Sale for Products: CROCIN RICH, CROCIN RICH II and CROCIN RICH plus.

Dec. 2015: US patent 9,211,298 was issued for our product.

Sep. 2015: FDA reviewed and approved (NO Objection) Crocin Rich®, the purified natural crocin ingredient, as a new dietary ingredient (NDI) for product application. Crocin is the only water-soluble carotenoid in nature, a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.

Crocin and Saffron Research Publications

1/2021 Crocetin promotes clearance of amyloid-β by inducing autophagy via the STK11/LKB1-mediated AMPK pathway. Autophagy. 2021,

10/2020 Saffron for the management of premenstrual dysphoric disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Advanced Biomedical Research. 2020, October, IP:

10/2020 The effect of crocin (the main active saffron constituent) on the cognitive functions, craving, and withdrawal syndrome in opioid patients under methadone maintenance treatment. Phyto Res 2020,

10/2020 The effect of crocin on memory, hippocampal acetylcholine level, and apoptosis in a rat model of cerebral ischemia. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2020, 130, 110543

9/2020 The effect of crocin supplementation on glycemic control, insulin resistance and active AMPK levels in patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot study. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2020, 12:59

9/2020 Ameliorative effects of crocin on tartrazine dye–induced pancreatic adverse effects: a biochemical and histological study. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2021, 28, 2209–2218.

8/2020 The effect of crocin supplementation on lipid concentrations and fasting blood glucose: A systematic review and meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized controlled trials. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2020, 52, 102500.

8/2020 The effect of saffron supplementation on some inflammatory and oxidative markers, leptin, adiponectin, and body composition in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A double‐blind randomized clinical trial. Phytother Res. 2020

8/2020 A placebo controlled randomized clinical trial of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) on depression and food craving among overweight women with mild to moderate depression. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2020; 45: 134–143.

8/2020 Crocin Treatment after Maternal Hypoxia Attenuates Spatial Memory Impairment and Expression of BACE1 and HIF-1a in Rat Offspring Brain. Basic & Clin Neurosci. 2020, 11(4):499-406.

7/2020 The effect of saffron supplement on clinical outcomes and metabolic profiles in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: A randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res. 2020 Jul; 34(7): 1650-1658.

6/2020  Immunoregulatory Effects of Krocina™, a Herbal Medicine Made of Crocin, on Osteoarthritis Patients: A Successful Clinical Trial in Iran. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2020, 19(3): 253-263.

6/2020 Neuroprotective effects of saffron on the late cerebral ischemia injury through inhibiting astrogliosis and glial scar formation in rats. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2020, 126, 110041

5/2020  Effects of crocin and saffron aqueous extract on gene expression of SIRT1, AMPK, LOX1, NF-κB, and MCP-1 in patients with coronary artery disease: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res. 2020, 34(5): 1114-1122.

5/2020  Effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on cognitive function. A systematic review of RCTs. Neurological Sciences. 2020, 41: 2747–2754

5/2020  Pharmacological Effects of Saffron and Its Constituents in Ocular Disorders From in Vitro Studies to Clinical Trials; A Systematic Review. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2020 May 6.  doi: 10.2174/1570159X18666200507083346.

4/2020  Effects of saffron supplementation on glycemia and inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial study. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. Available online 29 April 2020

3/2020  The effects of crocus sativus extract on serum lipid profile and liver enzymes in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomized placebo-controlled study. Obesity Medicine. Volume 17, March 2020, 100165

3/2020  Effect of crocin on antioxidant gene expression, fibrinolytic parameters, redox status and blood biochemistry in nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J of Biol Res-Thessaloniki, 2020, 27, 4.

2/2020  The effect of saffron supplement on clinical outcomes and metabolic profiles in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: A randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled clinical trial. Phytother. Res. 2020,

2/2020  Effects of Saffron on Sleep Quality in Healthy Adults With Self-Reported Poor Sleep: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 2020,

2/2020  Cytotoxic and osteogenic effects of crocin and bicarbonate from calcium phosphates for potential chemopreventative and anti-inflammatory applications in vitro and in vivo. J Mater Chem B. 2020, 8(10):2048-2062.

1/2020  Crocin: a protective natural antioxidant against pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin. Pharmacol. Rep (2020).

1/2020  Crocin attenuates isoprenaline-induced myocardial fibrosis by targeting TLR4/NF-κB signaling: connecting oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology, 2020, 393: 13–23

1/2020  Beneficial effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in ocular pathologies, particularly neurodegenerative retinal diseases. Neural Regen Res. 2020, 15(8): 1408-1416.

1/2020  Neuroprotective effect of crocin against rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease in rats: Interplay between PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and enhanced expression of miRNA-7 and miRNA-221. Neuropharmacology. 2020, 164: 107900

1/2020  Crocin prevents metabolic syndrome in rats via enhancing PPAR-gamma and AMPK. Saudi Journal of BiologicalSciences,

12/2019 Effects of crocin in reducing DNA damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress in multiple sclerosis patients: A double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2019 Dec;33(12):e22410. doi: 10.1002/jbt.22410.

11/2019 Evaluation of the effectiveness of crocin isolated from saffron in treatment of burning mouth syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. Avicenna J Phytomed, 2019; 9(6): 505-516

10/2019 Effects Of Saffron Supplementation On Inflammation And Metabolic Responses In Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy 2019, 12: 2107–2115

6/2019  Protective properties of the aqueous extract of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in ischemic stroke, randomized clinical trial. J Ethnopharm. 2019, 238,

5/2019   Effects of saffron on homocysteine, and antioxidant and inflammatory biomarkers levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Avicenna J Phytomed, 2019. Epub ahead of print.

5/2019   Evaluation of the effectiveness of crocin isolated from saffron in treatment of burning mouth syndrome: A randomized controlled trial. Avicenna J Phytomed, 2019. Epub ahead of print.

5/2019   Crocin, a carotenoid, suppresses spindle microtubule dynamics and activates the mitotic checkpoint by binding to tubulin. Biochemical Pharmacology. 2019, 163: 32-45.

4/2019   Crocus sativus L. Versus Methylphenidate in Treatment of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized, Double-Blind Pilot Study. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2019, 29(3).

4/2019   Saffron: The Golden Spice with Therapeutic Properties on Digestive Diseases. Nutrients 2019, 11, 943; doi:10.3390/nu11050943.

4/2019   Beneficial Effects of Physical Activity and Crocin Against Adolescent Stress Induced Anxiety or Depressive-Like Symptoms and Dendritic Morphology Remodeling in Prefrontal Cortex in Adult Male Rats. Neurochemical Research. 2019, 44(4): 917–929.

3/2019   Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in Ocular Diseases: A Narrative Review of the Existing Evidence from Clinical Studies. Nutrients. 2019, 11, 649; doi:10.3390/nu11030649

3/2019   Protective properties of the aqueous extract of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in ischemic stroke, randomized clinical trial. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Available online 23 March 2019, 111833

3/2019   Crocin may be useful to prevent or treatment of alcohol induced neurodegeneration and neurobehavioral sequels via modulation of CREB/BDNF and Akt/GSK signaling pathway. Medical Hypotheses. 2019, 124: 21-25.

3/2019   The Crocus sativus Compounds trans-Crocin 4 and trans-Crocetin Modulate the Amyloidogenic Pathway and Tau Misprocessing in Alzheimer Disease Neuronal Cell Culture Models. Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2019,

3/2019   Crocin inhibits the migration, invasion, and epithelial‐mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells via miR‐320/KLF5/HIF‐1α signaling. J Cell Phys.

2/2019   The effects of crocin on psychological parameters in patients under methadone maintenance treatment: a randomized clinical trial. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2019; 14: 9. doi: 10.1186/s13011-019-0198-1

2/2019   An evaluation of the effects of saffron supplementation on the asthma clinical symptoms and asthma severity in patients with mild and moderate persistent allergic asthma: a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Respiratory Research. 2019, 20:39.

2/2019   Crocin-protected malathion-induced spatial memory deficits by inhibiting TAU protein hyperphosphorylation and antiapoptotic effects. Nutritional Neuroscience. 2019,

2/2019   Crocin Acts as a Neuroprotective Agent against Methamphetamine-induced Neurodegeneration via CREB-BDNF Signaling Pathway. IJPR. 2019, DOI: 10.22037/IJPR.2019.2393

2/2019   Crocin as a novel therapeutic agent against colitis. Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 2019,

1/2019   Saffron therapy for the treatment of mild/moderate age-related macular degeneration: a randomised clinical trial. Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. 2019, 257(1): 31–40.

1/2019   Pretreatment with crocin along with treadmill exercise ameliorates motor and memory deficits in hemiparkinsonian rats by anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms. Metabolic Brain Disease, 2019, 34(2): 459-468.

1/2019   The effects of crocin on spatial memory impairment induced by hyoscine: Role of NMDA, AMPA, ERK and CaMKII proteins in rat hippocampus. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2019; 22:1-9.

1/2019   Investigation of the neuroprotective effects of crocin via antioxidant activities in HT22 cells and in mice with Alzheimer’s disease. Intl J Mol Med. 2019, 43: 956-966.

1/2019   Therapeutic potency of crocin in the treatment of inflammatory diseases: Current status and perspective. J Cell Phys. 2019

1/2019   The Efficacy of Saffron in the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Depression: A Meta-analysis. Planta Med 2019; 85(01): 24-31.

12/2018   Crocin inhibits apoptosis and astrogliosis of hippocampus neurons against methamphetamine neurotoxicity via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Neurochemical Research. 2018, 43(12): 2252–2259.

12/2018   Effects of Combined Crocin and Epirubicin on Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Pathways in a Human Cervical Cancer Cell Line. Int J Cancer Manag. 2018, 11(12): e82575.

11/2018   Effects of crocin on cognitive and spatial memories in rats under chronic isolation stress. Physiology and Pharmacology. 2018, 22: 254-268

11/2018   Antiviral Effects of Saffron and its Major Ingredients. Current Drug Delivery. 2018, 15(5): 698-704

10/2018   Effect of Crocin, Exercise, and Crocin-accompanied Exercise on Learning and Memory in Rats under Chronic Unpredictable Stress. Adv Biomed Res. 2018; 7: 137. doi: 10.4103/abr.abr_153_18.

10/2018   The effect of crocin on total sleep-deprivation induced amnesia in male Wistar rats. Journal of Paramedical Sciences. 2018, 9(4). ISSN 2008-4978

10/2018   Neuroprotection against CCl4 induced brain damage with crocin in Wistar rats. Biotechnic & Histochemistry. 2018, 93(8).

9/2018   Treatment with crocin improves cardiac dysfunction by normalizing autophagy and inhibiting apoptosis in STZ-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases. 2018, 28(9): 952–961

9/2018   Crocin, a natural product attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced anxiety and depressive-like behaviors through suppressing NF-kB and NLRP3 signaling pathway. Brain Research Bulletin. 2018, 142: 352-359.

8/2018   Effects of Crocins in the Management of Neurodegenerative Pathologies: A Review. Neurophysiology. 2018, 50(4): 302–308

8/2018   Effects of the active constituents of Crocus sativus L. crocins and their combination with memantine on recognition memory in rats. Behavioural Pharmacology. 2018, 29(5): 400-412.

6/2018   Effects of Crocin on Diabetic Maculopathy: A Placebo-Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial. Am J of Ophth. 2018, 190: 89-98

5/2018    Crocin improved amyloid beta induced long-term potentiation and memory deficits in the hippocampal CA1 neurons in freely moving rats. Synapse. 2018, 72(5).

5/2018   affron®, a standardised extract from saffron (Crocus sativus L.) for the treatment of youth anxiety and depressive symptoms: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2018, 232: 349-357

5/2018   Crocin attenuates cyclophosphamide induced testicular toxicity by preserving glutathione redox system. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2018, 101: 174-180

3/2018   Preventive effects of crocin on neuronal damages induced by D-galactose through AGEs and oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y). J Pharmacopuncture. 2018, 21(1): 18–25.

3/2018   Efficacy of Crocus sativus (saffron) in treatment of major depressive disorder associated with post-menopausal hot flashes: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2018, 297(3): 717–724

3/2018   Crocin improves the proliferation and cytotoxic function of T cells in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2018, 99: 96-100

3/2018   Anticancer activity of crocin against cervical carcinoma (HeLa cells): Bioassessment and toxicity evaluation of crocin in male albino rats. J of Photochem and Photobio B: Biology. 2018, 180: 118-124

2/2018   The effects of tramadol administration on hippocampal cell apoptosis, learning and memory in adult rats and neuroprotective effects of crocin. Metabolic Brain Disease. 2018, 33: 907–916

2/2018   Crocin potentiates antioxidant defense system and improves oxidative damage in liver tissue in diabetic rats. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2018, 98: 333-337.

2/2018   Saffron improved depression and reduced homocysteine level in patients with major depression: A Randomized, double-blind study. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2018, 8(1): 43–50.

1/2018   Dietary crocin reverses melanoma metastasis. J of Biomed Res, 2018, 32(1): 39–50

1/2018   Crocin attenuates acute hypobaric hypoxia-induced cognitive deficits of rats. European Journal of Pharmacology. 2018, 818: 300-305.

1/2018   Protective effect of crocin against d-galactose-induced aging in mice. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2018, 8(1): 14–23.

12/2017   The effect of crocin on forgetfulness caused by cholestasis in male rats (behavioral , biochemical and genetical). The First International Congress on Biomedicine held from November 22th to 24th, 2017 in Tehran, Iran.

12/2017   Yorgun MA, Rashid K, Aslanidis A, Bresgen C, Dannhausen K, Langmann T. Crocin, a plant-derived carotenoid, modulates microglial reactivity. Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports. 2017, 12: 245–250.

11/2017   Effect of saffron oral capsule on anxiety and quality of sleep of diabetic patients in a tertiary healthcare facility in southeastern Iran: A quasi-experimental study. Trop J Pharm Res, 2017; 16(11): 2749-2753.

11/2017   Effect of Saffron Extract and Aerobic Exercises on Troponin T and Heart-Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein in Type 2 Diabetes Patients. Iranian Journal of Diabetes & Obesity. 2017, 9(1/2): 45-53.

11/2017   The Psychoactive Agent Crocin Can Regulate Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity. Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2017, 11 | Article 668. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2017.00668

11/2017   Heidari  S, Mehri S, Hosseinzadeh H. Memory enhancement and protective effects of crocin against D-galactose aging model in the hippocampus of Wistar rats. Iran J Basic Med Sci, 2017, 20(11): 1250-1259.

11/2017   Effects of saffron and its constituents, crocin-1, crocin-2, and crocetin on α-synuclein fibrils. Journal of Natural Medicines. (2017).

10/2017   Effect of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) as an Add-On Therapy to Sertraline in Mild to Moderate Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. Arch Neurosci. 2017 4(4):e14332. doi: 10.5812/archneurosci.14332.

9/2017   The effect of saffron on sexual dysfunction in women of reproductive age. Nurs Pract Today. 2017; 4(3):154-163.

9/2017     Mashak shahabadi M, Mousavi SZ, Mousavi SE, Ezzati MH. Crocin Affects Passive Avoidance Memory Following Formaldehyde-Induced Neurotoxicity in a Rat Model. Advanced Journal of Toxicology: Current Research. 2017, 1(1): 15-22.

8/2017    Saffron (Crocus sativus) intake provides nutritional preconditioning against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in Wild Type and ApoE(-/-) mice: Involvement of Nrf2 activation. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases. 2017, 27: 919-929.

8/2017    Comparison of Saffron and Fluvoxamine in the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial. Iran J Psychiatry 2017, 12(3): 154-162.

8/2017     affron® a novel saffron extract (Crocus sativus L.) improves mood in healthy adults over 4 weeks in a double-blind, parallel, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2017, 33: 58-64.

8/2017     Crocin Attenuates Joint Pain and Muscle Dysfunction in Osteoarthritis Rat. Inflammation. 2017, 40(6): 2086–2093

8/2017     Antiproliferative Activity of Crocin Involves Targeting of Microtubules in Breast Cancer Cells. Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 44984 (2017) doi:10.1038/srep44984

7/2017   Effects of Saffron Aqueous Extract and Its Main Constituent, Crocin, on Health-Related Quality of Life, Depression, and Sexual Desire in Coronary Artery Disease Patients: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2017, 19 (9); e13676

7/2017    Inhibition of Inflammatory Response by Crocin Attenuates Hemorrhagic Shock-Induced Organ Damages in Rats. Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research. 2017, 37(7): 295-302.

6/2017     Crocin attenuates hemorrhagic shock-induced oxidative stress and organ injuries in rats. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2017, 52: 177-182

5/2017     Pre-supplementation of Crocus sativus Linn (saffron) attenuates inflammatory and lipid peroxidation markers induced by intensive exercise in sedentary women. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 2017, 7(5): 147-151.

5/2017     Crocus sativus extract tighten the blood-brain barrier, reduces amyloid-β load and related toxicity in 5XFAD mice. ACS Chem. Neurosci., 2017, 8(8): 1756–1766

5/2017     Crocin Attenuates Kindling Development and Associated Cognitive Impairments in Mice via Inhibiting Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated NF-κB Activation. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology. 2017, 120(5):  426–433

3/2017     Crocin improves spatial learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze via attenuating cortical oxidative damage in diabetic rats. Neuroscience Letters. 2017, 642: 1-6.

3/2017    Crocins, the active constituents of Crocus sativus L., counteracted apomorphine-induced performance deficits in the novel object recognition task, but not novel object location task, in rats. Neuroscience Letters. 2017, 644: 37-42

3/2017   Antiproliferative Activity of Crocin Involves Targeting of Microtubules in Breast Cancer Cells. Scientific Reports. 2017, 7:44984. DOI: 10.1038/srep44984

3/2017     Role of Dietary Crocin in In Vivo Melanoma Tumor Remission. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2017, 18(3): 841-846

3/2017     Protective effect of Crocus sativus L. (Saffron) extract on spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2017, 20(3): 334–337.

2/2017     Saffron in the treatment of depression, anxiety and other mental disorders: Current evidence and potential mechanisms of action. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2017, 227: 330-337.

1/2017     Crocin protects against cerebral- ischemia-induced damage in aged rats through maintaining the integrity of blood-brain barrier. Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience, 2017, 35(1): 65-75.

1/2017    Trans-crocetin improves amyloid-β degradation in monocytes from Alzheimer's Disease patients. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 2017, 372: 408-412